3 ways to present endnotes

3 ways to present endnotes
3 ways to present endnotes

Citing your sources properly is necessary in order to highlight the work of an author who inspired you, to indicate to your readers the sources you have used and to enhance your research work. Although endnotes are used less in homework and academic dissertations than in-body quotes or endnotes, they are more common in books because they allow for a clearer layout. The basics of endnotes are the same (they are numbered in the text and refer to an entry in the notes section at the end of a document), but have a few minor differences depending on the style you are going to choose (AFNOR standards in France and APA style in Canada).


Method 1 of 3: Insert endnotes

Do Endnotes Step 1

Step 1. Use endnotes to cite your sources

If the information or quote you refer to in an assignment or book comes from a source, you should tell your reader what information is needed to locate it. You have to do this for several reasons.

  • To avoid plagiarism. You must correctly attribute the ideas and quotes you refer to to avoid being accused of plagiarism, which involves using someone else's ideas or work without acknowledgment (intentionally or unintentionally). If you are a student, plagiarism can result in disciplinary action. If you are an academic or professional researcher, plagiarism will, at best, result in rejection of your manuscript and, in worst case, disciplinary action. Your degree may even be revoked if your teachers find out that you have plagiarized someone else's work.
  • So that the reader can check your work. Quotes allow readers to look at the notes and ideas you have used in a context, to determine whether or not they agree with your interpretation.
  • So that your readers can dig deeper into the subject. Endnotes allow readers who have a keen interest in you to find the sources you have relied on so that they too can refer to them.
  • To show that you have consulted a wide variety of sources. Endnotes can show your reader that you have considered the main points about your topic or, if not, allow them to quickly determine which ones you haven't read.
Do Endnotes Step 2

Step 2. Keep track of your sources

You should do this throughout the research and writing phase of your assignment. You are going to need to cite your notes correctly, so it is important that you keep track of relevant information when taking your notes. Note in particular the following:

  • the page number,
  • the name of the author, as well as the name of his publisher or translator,
  • the title of the work, the city of publication, the name of the publishing house and the year of publication,
  • the title of the article, journal, volume or serial number, and the date of publication.
Do Endnotes Step 3

Step 3. File your end notes at the end of your assignment

Other systems allow citing sources in parentheses in text or in footnotes. The final notes, on the other hand, are all grouped together in a separate section called “Notes” at the end of your document. There are pros and cons in this regard.

  • Relegating quotes to the end of a document helps make your layout clearer. That’s why this is the preferred system for books.
  • Grouping the quotes together in one place allows the reader to digest them as a whole.
  • On the other hand, not having the quotes directly on the page means that the reader will have to jump to the end of your manuscript each time they want to consult your notes, which can be frustrating.
  • Endnotes can give the impression that you want to hide your quotes.
Do Endnotes Step 4

Step 4. Insert the number of your note in the body of your text

This will allow you to refer to your final grade. You should include an exhibitor number in your text immediately after referring to someone else's work. The same number will appear in the notes section at the end of your manuscript, allowing your reader to view the citation.

  • Your note number must precede the punctuation. Never put the latter after a comma, ending or question mark.
  • Your grade numbers should also follow each other throughout your assignment.
  • In a book, your note numbers can start over for each new chapter. In this case, your final section will need to be divided by chapter.
  • Write the exhibitor number at the end of any quote or sentence in which you refer to someone else's work. For example "According to Hoskins and Garrett, IQ tests are often problematic1, but I consider that it is possible to put them in place effectively in a school environment ".
Do Endnotes Step 5

Step 5. Create a separate page for your final notes

Your endnotes should start on their own page, with “Notes” written across the top and middle of the page. Each citation should begin with a number corresponding to the number indicated in the body of the text where another person’s work has been cited.

  • Create a margin after the first line of each note 1.5cm from the left margin. Additional lines of a final grade should line up with the left margin.
  • Use the appropriate citation form according to the style of your choice.
Do Endnotes Step 6

Step 6. Choose a word processor

The latter must insert notes and create an automatic link to the final notes page. While you can insert an exponent number yourself and then scroll down to the end page to write the note, it is much easier to use the endnote feature in your word processor.. With software like Microsoft Word, just click Insert> Insert Endnote (or References> Insert Endnote, depending on your version). A note number will automatically be inserted into the text wherever your cursor is, and you will find the same note number on the endnotes page, where you can enter the citation information.

Method 2 of 3: Use AFNOR standards

Do Endnotes Step 7

Step 1. Use AFNOR standards

For any academic or professional writing, it is important to present the references used to develop a topic in a consistent manner. The presentation of these references is subject to standards (NF Z44-005 and ISO 690). They can nevertheless be interpreted differently according to the countries, the disciplines and the universities.

  • You can present your references in the body of the text or in endnotes (or footnotes).
  • You must also include the author's name and the publication date in the body of the text. A second option is to use a number referring to a footnote or to a numbered list of references: this is a more precise system, but longer and therefore less used.
  • The bibliography always follows the endnotes page. The bibliography allows all sources to be listed in alphabetical order of the names of the authors. You must add an entry for each note. The format is slightly different from that of the endnotes. Be careful, however, because in the bibliography, the date takes a different place depending on the rating system adopted. The date is found after the author in the system where you mention the author and the date and after the editor in the system where the bibliographic notes appear at the end of the assignment.
Do Endnotes Step 8

Step 2. Give all of the information at the first citation

The information you will need to provide will depend on the type of sources.

  • Book (author): author's first and last name, Title (city of publication: publishing house, date of publication), page number (s).
  • Book (publisher): author's first and last name, ed., Title (city of publication: publishing house, date of publication), page number (s).
  • Journal article: author's first and last name, Article title, Journal title Volume (year): page number (s).
  • Newspaper: author's first and last name, Article title, Journal title, date, page number (s).
  • For all types of sources, if there are two or three authors, list their names with commas between each. For more than three authors, list only the name of the first author, a comma and “et al. Instead of the name of the other contributors.
  • For a complete list of all suitable source types and formats, see
Do Endnotes Step 9

Step 3. Use only the author's name for sources already cited

If you have already cited a source, you will only need to include its name, the title of the work and the page number. Do not cite it in its entirety and include only the following elements.

The name of the author, the title of the work, the page number (s). If it's not fiction or poetry, you can use a shorter version of the title (if it's longer than 4 words)

Do Endnotes Step 10

Step 4. Use the term “ibid”

This mention will indicate that two consecutive final marks (or more) are similar. In this case, you don't even have to write the author's name anymore. You can replace all of the information in your reference with “ibid”, an abbreviation of the Latin term ibidem, which means “in the same place”. For example, if you cite the novel "Love in the Time of Cholera" by Gabriel Garcia Marquez twice in a row, you may cite your source as follows.

  • 1 Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 27-28.
  • 2 Ibid., 45.
Do Endnotes Step 11

Step 5. Place the Notes page just before the Bibliography

If you have appendices, place the notes page right after. Double-spaced your endnotes, like in a manuscript.

In some cases, your teacher may prefer that you keep single line spacing and leave a blank line between each entry. If you have any doubts, ask your teacher directly

Method 3 of 3: Use the APA style

Do Endnotes Step 12

Step 1. Use the APA style

The APA citation style is defined by the American Psychological Association. This is a standard developed by a group of researchers in the social sciences which makes it possible to present lists of references, to regulate punctuation, abbreviations, the construction of tables, the selection of headings, the presentation of references and that of statistics. At the University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, the APA citation style is used primarily by the departments of health sciences, humanities, and education.

  • Endnotes are used for analysis and commentary only, so there is no need to cite these documents on the notes page at the end of the document.
  • Where there are citations in the text, the references should be presented in the body of the text and in parentheses.
Do Endnotes Step 13

Step 2. Create a bibliography of endnotes

This type of APA-style endnote allows you to refer to other texts that your readers will likely want to see. This can be useful if you have several sources that offer more in-depth reading on your topic, but you don't have room in your document to delve into them.

  • When the list of references contains several documents by the same author, present it in the order of publication, starting with the oldest.
  • When the same author publishes multiple documents in the same year, you must assign a letter after the year. Start with the first one mentioned in the text. For example: the first cited document (2013a) and the second mentioned (2013b) and so on.
Do Endnotes Step 14

Step 3. Create an explanatory endnote

The latter helps provide more information, especially if it relates to the topic of your assignment. APA style recommends using this type of note sparingly.

  • For example, "Although less well known than her other compositions, songwriter and songwriter Wendy's album Cookies is also about agriculture in harmony with the environment."
  • Or "Johnson reiterates her point at a conference she is holding in 2013, although she was less vehement on that occasion."
Do Endnotes Step 15

Step 4. Place the Notes page before the Cited Works page

With the APA style, you must place the notes page immediately after the one showing the cited works.

  • Center the word "Notes" in the center of your page. Do not use any special format or punctuation. If you only have one note, write "Note".
  • Double space between each note.

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