How to Highlight the Effects of Caffeine on Teenage Sleep

How to Highlight the Effects of Caffeine on Teenage Sleep
How to Highlight the Effects of Caffeine on Teenage Sleep
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Student, student, you want to excel in your field, boost your intellectual and physical capacities in order to fully succeed. Despite your motivation, your will and your perseverance, a phenomenon stops you in your tracks: fatigue. It stalks you, blocks all your abilities and prevents your development. In your entourage, you are praised the miracle effects of all caffeinated drinks. A scientist at heart, you wonder about the effects of this miracle drink, is it not dangerous for our body? Is it still beneficial? As you begin your caffeine intake, note that the touted effects are very real, however you notice one important side effect: your sleep is impacted, if so, this article is for you! wikihow offers you a study to determine the effects of caffeine on adolescent sleep.

Steps

Method 1 of 4: Understanding the terms sleep / caffeine / adolescence

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Step 1. What is sleep?

It is a necessary periodic physiological state of your body, which can be divided into two stages: slow sleep and REM sleep.

  • The first phase is characterized by falling asleep (= decreased heart rate and muscle relaxation), followed by slow sleep (= the sleeper is sensitive to the environment), followed by slow deep sleep (= cut off from the environment).
  • The second phase, paradoxical sleep, is the short period during which you completely cut yourself off from the environment around you, then begins an intense brain activity: the dream.
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Step 2. What is caffeine?

It is a substance with the ability to stimulate your central nervous system, it increases your attention and decreases your drowsiness. Here are some things to keep in mind when it comes to caffeine.

  • The daily intake for a healthy adult is 400 mg / day. For pregnant women, adolescents and people with heart disease, this should not exceed 200 mg / day. Be aware that overuse of caffeine can lead to death.
  • It releases these effects within 15 minutes of consumption and loses 50% of its effectiveness every 3 to 4 hours.
  • Energy drinks such as Red Bull, Burn, Monster… (also contain high doses).
Screenshot 2018 02 10 to 16.05.38

Step 3. Why do adolescents sleep?

The wikiHow team classified this study in a target category, adolescence, because it is young people who are most prone to increased consumption of caffeine (coffee or energy drinks), often as part of their studies, in order to increase their physical and intellectual capacities.

Method 2 of 4: An experiment? A response

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Step 1. We have made some assumptions

There are partial and incomplete answers which express an idea on the outcome of the problematic of our article.

  • 1st hypothesis:

    coffee is an stimulant, it delays sleep, causes insomnia (if taken in the late afternoon). The measurable variable is the quality of the night as well as the duration of falling asleep.

  • 2nd hypothesis:

    coffee reduces drowsiness and at the same time fatigue. The measurable variable is the quality of the day, following the consumption of caffeine.

  • 3rd hypothesis:

    during the first days of caffeine consumption, sensitivity is very high (if the person is not a user). The measurable variable is then the quantity of sleep as well as the quality of the day.

  • 4th hypothesis:

    the substance can create an addictive effect, if it is consumed daily. Addiction can take two aspects: either you get used to it and this does not cause long-term consequences for sleep, or you become subject to sleep disturbances.

  • 5th hypothesis:

    drinking coffee during this experience can be addictive. We can confirm or refute this hypothesis based on the results of the consumers' experience with caffeine. Caffeine addiction does not have long term consequences.

    The validity of the hypotheses will be revealed at the end of the experiments

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Step 2. The protocol of the thought experiment

Our goal is to provide you with an analysis allowing you to compare normal sleep (without the influence of caffeine) and sleep on caffeine, with the following experimental protocol.

  • a) Control experiment:

    sleep analysis of several people x for a limited period of time.

  • b) Experience with caffeine:

    sleep analysis, on caffeine for a similar duration.

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Step 3. Refinement and validation of the protocol

  • The witness experience (October 9 to November 12, 2017). The subjects of the experiment are the three teenage members of wikiHow. The goal is to analyze the daily sleep of the team using hypnograms.
  • The coffee experience (November 12 to December 10, 2017). During this period, we introduce caffeine to our daily diet, exclude all other substances with effects similar to caffeine (i.e. group C vitamins, theine, energy drinks as well as screen light) and analyze the sleep. You get caffeine through the consumption of a coffee milk drink. The amount of caffeine varies from one to three tablespoons. The coffee was taken twice: at breakfast and in the afternoon at tea time.

    • Complete and completed hypnograms (appendix 2), experiment completed, we have digitized all of our results on Excel software.
Screenshot 2018 02 11 at 18.51.35

Step 4. Interpretations and mathematical results

This point cloud above translates the amount of sleep in hours depending on the amount of caffeine in tablespoon.

Step 5. How to get this point cloud diagram?

Take the average sleep in hours for a given amount of caffeine (using hypnograms performed previously). Sleep averages = a blue dot on the graph. Create the point cloud diagram using Excel with the amount of caffeine in tablespoon as the abscissa and the hours of sleep on the ordinate.

  • Draw the linear line D passing through the majority of the points.
  • Calculate the directing coefficient of line D.
  • Determine its equation.

Step 6. How to determine the equation of line D?

Define the average point of the two statistical series x (amount of coffee in teaspoon) and y (amount of sleep in hours).

  • Define the variance.
  • Define the covariance.
  • Establish the guideline “a”.
  • Find the value of b, the intercept using the director coefficient. Thus, the equation of the line is given by the formula y = ax + b that is to say y = -1, 128x + 8, 864.

Step 7. The amount of coffee interfering with our sleep

As soon as we have found the reduced equation of the line y = -1, 128x + 8, 864; we can now calculate an estimate of how much coffee is harmful to our sleep. We consider that a teenager needs to have a night between 8 and 10 a.m. Below 8 am, we can deduce that he is having a bad night. Let x be the quantity of coffee in tablespoons and y, the hour of sleep, we will calculate for y = 7 the value of x.

  • y = -1, 128x + 8, 864
  • 7 = -1, 128x + 8, 864
  • 1, 128x = 8, 864 - 7
  • x = 1, 864/1, 128
  • x = 1.03

    From a teaspoon, for people who do not consume, it interferes with sleep

Screenshot 2018 02 09 at 19.49.32

Step 8. Execution of calculations on the Excel software and deductions. In conclusion, we can observe that the more the quantity of caffeine increases, the more the quantity of sleep decreases, as suggested by the equation of the line D. Its directing coefficient is negative, we can thus notice the slope of the latter which means the decrease in sleep. So if the amount of caffeine is important, it harms teenagers' sleep.

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Step 9. A margin of error?

Not being used to consuming caffeine, this makes us sensitive control subjects. So what happens to people who consume caffeine on a daily basis? Is their sleep still impacted by caffeine? Are they still feeling the effects of caffeine? Have they faded over time?

  • All these questions allowed us to establish an experiment called external whose experimental protocol is as follows.

    We chose a sample of six adolescents combined (three girls and three boys), who consume caffeine regularly. Then we asked them to complete hypnograms daily. We will proceed with the same mathematical experimental protocol of the internal experiment in order to obtain a point cloud diagram, a linear line and its linear equation

  • This experimental protocol would thus develop without any modification.
Screenshot 2018 02 11 at 18.34.00

Step 10. External experience

This diagram point cloud of consumers translates the amount of sleep in hours according to the amount of caffeine in tablespoon. We obtained this diagram with the results of hypnograms of caffeine consumers using the same experimental technique as the previous experiment.

  • We then get, the equation of the line: y = 0.69x + 10.76.
Screenshot 2018 02 11 to 18.19.27

Step 11. Execution of calculations on Excel and deductions

One can notice the weak growth of the guiding coefficient which shows that indeed, there is an addiction to caffeine over time. Regardless of the dose ingested and the time at which it was taken, it has no impact on sleep, on the contrary it can increase it.

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Step 12. The answer

It should be noted that these two experiments were carried out on a small sample. Therefore, due to the small number of people, our statistical results are not very demonstrative, but clearly denounce the impact of caffeine on adolescent sleep as well as the addiction it brings.

  • At the end of these two experiments, we validated all the assumptions made at the start of this work.
  • We were able to determine the effects of caffeine on sleep using hypnograms. Caffeine interferes with sleep, repelling it, and causing insomnia. A vicious circle is created, the sleep is of poor quality and insufficient. Fatigue wins us over, coffee chases it away, which makes coffee an essential element. Without coffee, late sleep accumulates and takes over. Coffee is essential. An effect of shortages is created. An addiction is created. Is this how addictive behavior is created?

Method 3 of 4: Schedule

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Step 1. Schedule 1 drinks containing 400 mg and 200 mg of caffeine

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Step 2. How do I visualize 200/400 mg of caffeine?

Method 4 of 4: Annex 2: hypnograms

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Step 1. Currently, several tools are available to you

They allow a detailed analysis of your sleep, for example there is the Sleep Cycle application or even hypnograms, tools frequently used by doctors with a role similar to Sleep Cycle. It is an old and manual tool.

  • However, this tool respects certain regulations namely:

    • graduation: during the hours of sleep;
    • the colored parts: the hours of sleep;
    • white parts: insomnia.
  • As the quality of night and day cannot be quantified, we have introduced a scale.

    • From 0 to 4: very average.
    • From 4 to 6: medium.
    • From 6 to 8: good.
    • From 8 to 10: very good.
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Step 2. Annex 3

Data from the first point cloud.

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Step 3. Annex 4

Data from the second point cloud.

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