The testes can be prone to pain and inflammation for many reasons, such as a viral or bacterial infection or trauma. The cause is important because it will determine the treatment to be applied. The pain you feel may be the result of a twist after trauma, a viral infection, orchitis caused by mumps, or a bacterial infection in the epididymis. Rest assured, it's probably not cancer, as this testicular disease rarely causes pain. When this happens, there are several things you can do to help relieve it.
Method 1 of 3: Find relief fast
Step 1. Take over-the-counter pain relievers
Some medicines like ibuprofen, paracetamol or aspirin can relieve pain. All of these medicines help to inhibit the production of chemicals called "prostaglandins" that cause inflammation. The recommended dose for each medicine will vary, follow the general guidelines below:
- ibuprofen: between 200 and 400 mg, with or just after meals, up to three times a day,
- aspirin: 300 mg up to four times a day,
- paracetamol: 500 mg up to three times a day,
- do not mix these medicines as an overdose could cause serious side effects.
Step 2. Lie on your back
Until you can get to a doctor, lying down and having proper testicular support should make you feel more comfortable and relieve physical stress.
You can give the scrotum more support by, for example, wearing a jockstrap. This helps relieve testicular pain by protecting the area from friction between the legs, painful scrotal movements, or external contact that could cause irritation
Step 3. Apply an ice pack to the area
In the event of a sudden onset of pain and inflammation, you can gently place an ice pack or a bag of frozen vegetables on your testicles for relief.
- This is an important method because if the inflammation is severe, it helps prolong the life of the testes without blood.
- Wrap the bag of ice cream or frozen vegetables in a dry cloth before setting it down to protect yourself from frostbite.
Step 4. Rest and avoid strenuous activities
Give your testicles time to heal naturally by avoiding activities that could make the pain and inflammation worse. Also, avoid weight lifting, running, or other vigorous exercise.
If you just can't get full rest, try wearing a jockstrap or other supportive undergarment
Method 2 of 3: Observe the symptoms
Step 1. Know the risk factors
There are several common risk factors for pain to be caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Here are a few:
- sexual intercourse,
- strenuous physical activities that are performed frequently, such as cycling or motorcycling,
- sitting for an extended period of time, for example if you are a truck driver or if you travel often,
- a medical history such as infection of the prostate or urinary tract,
- inflammation of the benign prostate or surgery to this organ, usually in older men
- anatomical defects like a posterior meatus, which can occur in prepubertal boys.
Step 2. Check for possible trauma
Pain in the testicles, caused by trauma (or testicular torsion) includes pain in these glands and in the epididymis, a tube at the back of the gland. To find out, you're going to have to pass a meticulous exam. If you have suffered trauma to the testicles, especially testicular torsion caused by sudden movement of the testicle, you must go to the doctor, as this puts the health of this gland at risk.
- Your doctor might check your cremasteric reflex, which should be absent in the event of trauma. It will run a reflex hammer along the inside of your thigh, which will cause the testicle to rise in the scrotum for protection in healthy patients.
- Usually, this twist presents as sudden pain.
Step 3. Look for pain caused by infection
Age plays a major role in diagnosing infection. Usually it is caused by a bacterial infection in the testes and epididymis. These bacteria have usually made their way from the rectum, most often in men over 35 or under 14. For men between the ages of 15 and 35, bacteria transmitted during sex are the most common reason for testicular infections, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. You will feel pain when the doctor feels the area during auscultation. He may also check to see if elevated glands are helping them, known as the "Prehn's sign."
- Treating the infection can help relieve the pain and fight the onset of worse symptoms or even sepsis.
- The cremasteric reflex will still be present during infections, but it will be accompanied by pain.
Step 4. Detect an orchitis
It is a viral infection that suddenly causes pain and inflammation in the testicle. The pain is acute and the inflammation is visible. It appears because of mumps, a viral infection that is becoming more common due to the drop in vaccines given to babies around the eleventh month. Between 20% and 30% of children who get mumps will get orchitis. This most often happens a week after the onset of parotitis, an inflammation of the parotid glands under the jaw.
There is no cure for mumps and the disease can lead to infertility. The only solution is to treat the symptoms, for example by taking pain relievers or applying ice packs
Step 5. Check for the possibility of an STI
In this case, the symptoms will probably also be pain in the testicles which could be accompanied by a burning sensation during urination. The onset of these symptoms will be gradual and may even take several weeks to appear. This pain could be associated with nausea and vomiting, in addition to abdominal pain. However, the cremasteric reflex remains normal.
- An ultrasound can show an increase in vascularity, infectious pockets or abscesses.
- You may also have other symptoms such as secretions or blood in the urine.
Step 6. Look for signs of orchiepididymitis
The pain caused by this bacterial infection will develop very quickly, usually within a day. The epididymis and testis will swell quickly and become swollen, red, and tender. It will cause you a lot of pain.
You may also have another infection, such as your urinary tract or urethra
Step 7. Request a laboratory analysis
This will allow you to detect a possible infection. Your doctor may also have your urine tested for bacteria like E. coli. If you are a sexually active young man, he may give you a multiplex polymerase chain reaction test (multiplex PCR) to indicate chlamydia or gonorrhea.
Ultrasound is often recommended for scrotal pain or inflammation to check for other problems
Method 3 of 3: Treat ongoing pain
Step 1. Treat bacterial infections
Men of any age can get infections that cause testicular pain, often caused by E. coli or other bacteria. In older men, a benign prostate enlargement could play a major role in these infections. Bacteria build up when the enlarged prostate prevents the bladder from emptying properly. Because of this phenomenon, E. coli and other bacteria in the digestive system can rise up and cause infection.
- These problems are usually treated with drugs like cotrimoxazole, quinolone (antibiotics). Treatment is spread over ten days, unless there is a problem with the prostate, in which case it will last longer.
- Often, Prehn's sign helps relieve symptoms. Ice packs will also be useful.
- You can also reduce the pain by taking paracetamol, ibuprofen, or a stronger narcotic pain reliever for the first few days.
Step 2. Treat sexually transmitted infections
Antibiotics are usually prescribed. Your doctor will usually give you ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin or doxycycline. The pain should start to get better after 24 to 48 hours. Ice packs and elevated testicles can also give you relief while you wait for the antibiotics to work. You can also take over-the-counter pain relievers, especially during the first few days of treatment.
Step 3. Treat testicular trauma
It is often the result of a testicle that has moved and is not getting enough blood. It happens after different kinds of trauma, for example if you fell off your bike and injured your groin. Severe testicular trauma can twist the spermatic cord, in which case you will need to have surgery. This disorder affects 3.8% of underage boys each year.
- Early observation of an elevated testis and the absence of a cremasteric reflex is sufficient to schedule surgical exploration. This helps prevent orchiectomy, which is the surgical removal of the testicle.
- Even minor trauma can cause inflammation, tenderness, high fever, and frequent urges to urinate.
- Usually, the time from injury to surgery is four to eight hours. This prevents further damage to the spermatic cord which must be replaced to prevent removal of the gland. Even if the surgery is decided very quickly, the success rate remains at 42%. delay in diagnosis can lead to orchiectomy and eventual infertility.