Linux is an open source operating system designed to replace Windows and Mac OS X. It is available as a free download and can be installed on just about any computer. Thanks to its open source philosophy, there are a wide variety of versions or "distributions" developed by different communities of people.
Method 1 of 2: Install a classic Linux distribution
Step 1. Download the Linux distribution of your choice
Linux distributions (or "distros") are typically available for free download as disk images in ISO format. You can find them on the websites of the communities that distribute them. They must then be burned to a CD or DVD before they can be used to install the system or try it out as a “live CD / DVD”.
- A “live CD / DVD” allows you to boot the system and contains a working version of the operating system that will run directly from the media.
- Install an image burning program or use the tools included for this purpose in your system if you are using Windows 7; 8 or Mac OS X.
Step 2. Boot your computer from the live CD / DVD
Most computers are set to boot from hard drive first, so you will need to change a few settings to boot your system from the live CD / DVD. Start by restarting your machine.
- When your computer starts up, press the key that gives you access to the BIOS. This will be indicated on the display screen of the manufacturer's mark. Typically these are the keys F2, F12 Where Eff that allow you to access the BIOS.
- For Windows 8 users: press and hold Shift and click on Restart. This will load the advanced boot options, from where you can boot the system from the CD / DVD.
- If you are on Windows 10, go to the advanced start-up settings and click Restart now.
- If you cannot access the boot menu on your computer from the manufacturer's overview screen, it is probably hidden in the BIOS menu. It is then possible to go to the BIOS menu in the same way as you go to the boot menu. The key (s) to press normally appear in a lower corner of the screen when the manufacturer's presentation screen appears.
- When you are in the start menu, choose Usb Where CD. When you have changed the settings, save and exit BIOS or the boot menu. Your computer will then continue to start up.
Step 3. Experiment with your distribution before installing it
Most live CDs / DVDs allow the operating system to be loaded into memory from the optical disc. You will not be able to save any files, but you will be able to explore the interface, test your peripherals (this is especially important for testing certain interfaces like wireless networking!) And decide if this system is right for you. agrees.
Step 4. Start the installation procedure
If you try the distribution before installing it, you have the option of launching the installation from the icon placed on the desktop for this purpose. If you are confident and don't want to try this first, you can start the installation process from the menu that appears after booting the CD / DVD.
You will have to choose a few options, such as your language, your keyboard layout, your time zone and your geographic location
Step 5. Create a user name and password
You will need to enter your system login information to install Linux, and you will need it later to perform your system administration tasks.
Step 6. Adjust your partitions
Linux should be mounted on a partition separate from any other operating system existing on your computer. A partition is a portion of the hard drive specially formatted to accommodate this operating system.
- Distributions like Ubuntu will automatically prepare their partition as recommended. You can then manually adjust these partitions. Most Linux installations require a minimum of 4 to 5 Gb, so take care to leave enough space both for the operating system, for all the programs you may need to install, as well as data and files. that you will create.
- If the installation procedure does not automatically create the partitions, be sure to create one that is in "ext4" format. If the copy of Linux you have consists of only a system installation disc, it is most likely that you will have to manually adjust the size of the partition (s).
Step 7. Boot into Linux
Your computer will restart when the system installation is complete. If Linux is the only system installed on your hard drive, it will launch automatically. If it is installed in parallel with Windows, you will see a screen created by boot loader software called "GNU GRUB" (or in some cases "LILO") which gives you the choice to start your computer with the newly installed Linux system or start Windows. Select the Linux boot from the list.
If other distributions of Linux are already installed, they will also be listed in this screen
Step 8. Check your peripheral hardware
Most of them should work automatically with your Linux distribution, especially if it is recent, but you may need to download additional drivers if all of your devices are not recognized.
- Some hardware may require "proprietary" drivers to function properly in Linux. This fact is common with some graphics cards or wireless network interfaces. There are many "open source" drivers that will work, but to get the most out of these features, you will need to complete your hardware installation by downloading one or more "proprietary" drivers from the sites of the manufacturers of these devices.
- In Ubuntu or Linux Mint, you can download the proprietary drivers through the system settings menus. Select the additional driver options, then choose, for example, the graphics driver from the list. Other distributions have more specific methods of obtaining these additional drivers.
- You may find other drivers on this list, especially for wireless interfaces.
Step 9. Start using Linux
When your installation is complete and you have verified that your devices are working properly, you are ready to start using Linux. Most distributions install several popular programs like LibreOffice, Gimp, and more out of the box, and you can download tens of thousands more from their “file repositories”.
Method 2 of 2: Install specific distributions
Step 1. Install Ubuntu
Ubuntu is one of the most popular distributions available today. There are two types: every two years, Canonical, its producer, releases a stabilized version "LTS" or (long-term follow-up) offering a commercial maintenance service to companies and another which comes out every 6 months, which is followed in the short term and more intended for individuals. The last LTS version in service is 12.04-3 which will be followed until April 2017 and the short term one is 13.04 which will be discontinued in April 2014. There are several variants of Ubuntu, based on different desktop interfaces (Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Xubuntu, etc.).
Step 2. Install Fedora
Fedora is another very popular free version of Linux. This distribution is initially based on the code of Red Hat Linux, a formerly free system, now commercialized and primarily intended for businesses. Fedora is the open source distribution that offers the most up-to-date software versions and serves as a kind of "prototype" for Red Hat Linux. Its community is very active.
Step 3. Install Debian
Debian is a popular distribution aimed at experienced Linux enthusiasts. It is currently considered to be the least buggy of all versions of Linux. Debian also contains a very large number of available software packages.
Step 4. Install Linux Mint
Linux Mint is one of the newest free distributions on the market and it is rapidly gaining popularity. It is built on the Ubuntu system and is actively supported by a community that provides corrections primarily based on the experience and listening to users. Like Ubuntu, this distro releases a version with long-term support every two years and several user interfaces are available.
- Please be patient, some installation steps may take a long time.
- Your computer must be connected to the Internet during the installation.
- Your old operating system and data may be erased, so take all necessary steps to protect it.
- If you do not choose to partition your hard drive and have a dual boot option, all of your data will be erased.